The Science of Sexual Masochism
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What does it mean to be a masochist? Sexual masochism may involve deriving pleasure from spanking, bondage and other degrading acts. Here we spill the sordid facts about S & M.
Transcript: Couples in healthy sexual relationships may experiment with masochistic behavior, like spanking, blindfolding,...
Couples in healthy sexual relationships may experiment with masochistic behavior, like spanking, blindfolding, gagging or bondage. With sexual masochism, a psychosexual disorder, these acts are not a game-they may result in physical or mental harm. The term "masochism" is derived from the name of writer Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, 19th-century author of Venus in Furs, the novel of a man who finds sexual pleasure in the degradation and abuse of a powerful woman. Experts say sexual excitement is derived from consciously being unconditionally subjected to the will of another person. And self-inflicted pain and humiliation is the means by which sexual masochists end up perceiving they're controlled by an all-powerful partner. Sexual masochism sometimes involves extremely painful activities like whippings, cutting or self-mutilation, as well as humiliating acts like urinating or defecation. One particularly dangerous practice masochists carry out is auto-erotic asphyxia, the placing a noose around the neck and, in some instances, the genitals, for sexual pleasure. Airtight bags and amyl nitrates, known as poppers, are also sometimes used. Research suggests that brain chemicals epinephrine and norepinephrine are released during stressful or painful experiences, resulting in a pleasurable "rush" that strengthens the desire to replicate the feeling. Sexual masochism is diagnosed after 6 or more months of intense recurring, sexual fantasies, urges or behaviors that involve acts of brutality for sexual excitement. Another factor addresses how the masochist's behavior leads to significant social, occupational or functional impairment. It's believed that sexually masochistic behavior starts with masochistic or sadistic play in childhood, and that these behaviors are generally evident by early adulthood. Cognitive, behavioral, psychoanalytic and drug therapies are all options for treating sexual masochism, though patients rarely continue treatment long-term, as recommended. For more information on mental health issues, watch additional videos on this site.More »
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Munchausen syndrome is a complicated mental illness in which a person pretends to be sick to get attention and sympathy from others. Since it's self-inflicted, it's difficult to treat. Get details on Munchausen syndrome in this video.
Transcript: Munchausen syndrome is a factitious disorder, meaning it's made up or self-inflicted. A person with Munchausen...
Munchausen syndrome is a factitious disorder, meaning it's made up or self-inflicted. A person with Munchausen syndrome pretends to be sick, or makes himself sick on purpose. People act this way to fulfill attention and sympathy needs, not for concrete benefits, like time off from work or financial gain. Munchausen patients make up illnesses, fabricate phony medical histories and create long lists of fake "symptoms." They may even make themselves sick by taking medications that ultimately mimic disease, like blood thinners, and by cutting, burning, or injuring themselves. Munchausen patients are so desperate to come off as sick that they'll even tamper with lab tests and equipment. Their behaviors mean unnecessary loss of organs to surgery, severe injury and even death. Unfortunately, people with Munchausen syndrome are so adept at deception; it can be hard to diagnose them. Some peculiar symptoms to look for include: eagerness to undergo frequent testing or risky procedures, very vague or inconsistent symptoms, and frequent hospitalizations, often at many different institutions. People with Munchausen syndrome may tell dramatic stories about medical history, yet appear to have few supportive visitors at the hospital. They may appear evasive when doctors ask to speak to their loved ones. If a doctor notices these things and does diagnose Munchausen syndrome, it can be difficult to treat. That's because the best treatment is talk therapy, but most patients won't admit they have an issue. Those who do get treatment often do so at the urging of family and friends. If you're concerned a loved one is faking illness, consult her about the issue. If gentle prodding doesn't help, your next step is to speak with her doctor.More »
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Curious about what makes a serial killer…well, a serial killer? Check out this video to learn more about the criteria and learn what goes on in the mind of a serial killer.
Transcript: To be labeled a serial killer, an individual must commit three or more murders in a relatively short...
To be labeled a serial killer, an individual must commit three or more murders in a relatively short time, with periods of rest, or "cool downs," in between. They prefer strangers for victims, and their motive is always psychological, not material. This begs the question, "What kind of person feels gratified from murder?" On the surface, serial killers are most often white males in their 20s or 30s. They tend to share dysfunctional childhoods, stories of physical or sexual abuse, and a history of detentions or arrests. As young adults, many serial killers will obsess over pyromania or animal cruelty. But what can we tell about the MINDS of these killers? Many serial killers have antisocial personality disorder, and show little regard for society's expectations of "right" and "wrong." They also have a genuine disregard for the rights and feelings of other people. Take Ted Bundy, for instance. After his arrest for murdering more than 30 people, he said, "I'm the most cold-blooded son-of-a-bitch you'll ever meet. I just like to kill." Despite this, people with antisocial personality disorder are charming and adept at manipulation. So are serial killers actually insane? Not usually. Many have families, jobs, and even hold leadership positions in their communities. The FBI reports most actually have IQs in the "above normal" range. Some are intelligent enough to attempt to convince authorities of their insanity, while others create fantastical alter egos, pinning their crimes on inner devils. Very few criminals actually have dissociative identity, or multiple personality, disorder. Regardless of what's inherently "wrong" with them, it's rare that serial killers express regret or the desire to reform. For this reason, and for the safety of all of us, serial killers are almost never offered rehabilitation, but instead are sentenced to life in prison or death.More »
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Instead of being frightened or angry with their captors, people who develop Stockholm syndrome develop compassion towards them. Watch this video to learn what Stockholm syndrome is and how it got its name.
Transcript: On the surface, Dugard's behavior seems bizarre, but it's typical of a psychological phenomenon known...
On the surface, Dugard's behavior seems bizarre, but it's typical of a psychological phenomenon known as Stockholm syndrome. Victims of Stockholm syndrome develop compassion and loyalty toward their captors. The condition follows psychologically traumatizing situations, like hostage situations and kidnappings. In fact, Stockholm syndrome got its name in 1973 when two thieves accosted a bank in Stockholm, Sweden, taking four-bank employees hostage. For six days, the prisoners were held in a bank vault, tied to explosives with nooses around their necks. During a rescue attempt, police were shocked when the captives took offense, siding with the captors! Like the Stockholm victims, people who develop this condition endure situations where they're forced to contemplate the reality of severe injury or death. In order for Stockholm syndrome to develop, a victim must also perceive that her captor's have shown occasional kindnesses. Being permitted to eat, not being punished for a so-called transgression, and even being allowed to live are all considered benevolent to someone with Stockholm syndrome. People with Stockholm experience symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder patients. They may have flashbacks, nightmares, distrust of others, and the inability to enjoy previously pleasurable activities. No one is sure why this phenomenon occurs, but it has been suggested that a victim believes, perhaps unconsciously, that forming an attachment to her captor maximizes her survival. Oddly, Stockholm syndrome doesn't resolve in tandem with the end of a hostage situation. In the 1973 bank robbing, the freed hostages remained loyal to their captors, even setting up a fund to cover the criminals' legal fees! These symptoms of Stockholm syndrome are actually something of an anomaly. According to FBI reports, 73-percent of abduction victims show no compassion or affection for their captors. And for the other 27-percent, long-term psychotherapy, together with short-term anxiety or sleep medications, offer Stockholm syndrome sufferers an excellent chance to recover and resume a normal, healthy life!More »
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What is schizophrenia? Well, for starters, it's not the same as multiple personality disorder, as many people think. Watch this video to learn about the characteristics of schizophrenia.
Transcript: People with schizophrenia may hear voices or believe that other people are reading their minds, controlling...
People with schizophrenia may hear voices or believe that other people are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting against them. These experiences are terrifying and can cause fearfulness, withdrawal, or extreme agitation. The chronic, severe, and disabling psychiatric disorder that we now call schizophrenia can be traced in written documents like the Egyptian Book of the Dead as far back as 2000 B.C. Many schizophrenics do not make sense when they talk-sometimes displaying "word salad: speech-here is an example: (Psychologist reads Patient Carl transcript 12 - 15 seconds. Eugen Bleuler first coined the term 'schizophrenia' in 1911 and defined the disorder with his four "A's": blunted Affect or diminished emotional response; loosening of Associations or reduced understanding of relationships; Ambivalence-an inability to make decisions; and Autism-a preoccupation with one's own thoughts and reduced awareness of external events. The psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia-hallucinations and delusions-tend to emerge earlier in men than in women. For men, symptoms appear in their mid to late-20's, while for women, schizophrenia symptoms surface in their mid-20's to early-30's. Symptoms don't typically occur after age 45 and only rarely before puberty. Although schizophrenia is a serious illness, the outlook for those diagnosed with the disorder has improved over the last 30 years. There is still no cure, but effective treatments have been developed, and many people with schizophrenia improve enough to lead independent, satisfying lives. If someone you love has symptoms of schizophrenia, please consult a mental health professional. Want to learn more? Check out other videos and sources on this site for more information.More »
Last Modified: 2013-06-12 | Tags »
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Delusions, hallucinations and an inability to organize thoughts are just a few of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Watch this video to learn about schizophrenia diagnosis and treatment.
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People can develop a dissociative identity disorder due to a number of factors. If left untreated, this disorder can have serious consequences. Learn about this here.
Transcript: Most of us know Tila Tequila as a Playboy model or the girlfriend of a football player. Or maybe we...
Most of us know Tila Tequila as a Playboy model or the girlfriend of a football player. Or maybe we know her from her most recent, infamous engagement to Casey Johnson, the heiress to the Johnson & Johnson fortune, who died in early 2010. Tila's not just a multi-layered character, she's actually not alone in that famous body! Tila Tequila suffers from Dissociative Identity Disorder - or Multiple Personality Disorder as it was once known - a mental illness in which a sufferer has at least two distinct identities. Experts attest that most patients have about 13 to 15 personalities, although there have been cases of people with up to 100 "alter-egos." About a year ago, Tila announced her condition on her MySpace page, and some of her erratic behavior since seems in line with her confession that she suffers from Dissociative Identity Disorder. For Tila Tequila, one of those other identities is "Jane," an outspoken woman who recently hijacked Tila's Twitter account. "I told you once and I'm not gonna tell you again, Tila is not here! this is Jane!" Jane tweeted. Aside from alter egos like these, people with Dissociative Identity Disorder, or DID, experience severe memory loss, or memory fluctuations. Other symptoms of the disorder can include: sleep disorders, alcohol or drug abuse, compulsions and rituals, and depression, and in more severe cases, suicidal tendencies. Because Dissociative Identity Disorder is so eccentric, it attracts a lot of media attention. For example, Steven Spielberg's latest brainchild, The United States of Tara, is a television show about a wife and mother boasting four personalities and counting. The show resulted in Showtime Networks' highest ratings in five years, and was almost instantly picked up for another season. Despite all this buzz, it is generally believed that less than one-percent of the United States population suffers from DID. Why these few people develop the disorder is not fully understood, but...experts do know that up to 99-percent of Dissociative Identity patients report severe physical and/or sexual abuse in young childhood. It is for this reason that DID sufferers often have traumatic flashbacks characteristic of another mental condition called Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, or PTSD. There is no definitive test that can diagnose DID, so psychiatrists must conduct detailed mental health interviews to look for it.The process is tricky though, and it is estimated that individuals with DID may spend up to seven years in therapy before they are properly diagnosed. The primary treatment for Dissociative Identity Disorder is ongoing psychotherapy, with a goal of combining all the personalities into one. This is what famous athlete, Herschel Walker, talks about in his recent book Breaking Free. A silent sufferer of Dissociative Identity Disorder, Walker channeled his identities into various sports.Walker was so successful at this that he was both a recipient of college football's Heisman trophy and a participant in the 1992 United States Olympian bobsled division. Walker also out-sprinted other Olympian runners, studied taekwondo, and schooled in ballet: "... a lot of people who have been under trauma go into an altered personality to cope with different things in their lives," Walker explained. Still, some individuals with DID are not content to rely on talk therapy. Hypnosis and electroconvulsive therapy are both alternative methods of attempting to control multiple identities. When DID is not treated - or when it's treated poorly - the results can be severe. Such was the case with Rebecca Arwen Long, a devout knitter, keeper of to-do lists, and loving wife. But it wasn't that side of Long that was on trial in a Seattle courtroom last November. Instead, it was a side that starved her stepdaughter to the point where the 14-year-old weighed just 47 pounds at the time of her rescue. Although Long's lawyers cited poorly controlled Dissociative Identity Disorder as the culprit, Long - and her alter-ego - were sentenced to three and a half years. Clearly, we have a long way to go before we fully understand DID and the conditions that surround it. But there are treatments that can help! So if you believe that you, or someone you love is suffering from the disorder, please seek immediate medical attention.More »
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There is a great deal of confusion about schizophrenia. Some think it has to do with split personalities, among other things. Discover the truth about schizophrenia in this video.
Transcript: Schizophrenia has been dubbed the "modern-day equivalent of leprosy," by celebrated psychiatrist E. Fuller...
Schizophrenia has been dubbed the "modern-day equivalent of leprosy," by celebrated psychiatrist E. Fuller Torrey, M.D. Indeed, the disorder is cloaked in misunderstanding and distrust. The term schizophrenia refers to "splitting of the mind," so perhaps it makes sense that one of the most pervasive myths about schizophrenia is that people who have it suffer from split, or multiple, personalities. Fully 64-percent of Americans buy into this misconception, according to a national alliance on mental illness survey. But split mind refers to a disparity between thought and action such as smiling when telling a disturbing story or feeling afraid of completely mundane things. It does not refer to a variety of different personalities! The truth is that multiple personalities are a symptom of a completely different illness, called Dissociative Identity Disorder, but known colloquially as multiple personality disorder. Another prevalent myth about schizophrenia is that people with the disorder are dangerous and unpredictable. In reality, the incidence of violence amongst those with schizophrenia is not much higher than that of the general population. In fact, it is much more likely that a person with schizophrenia will withdraw from society in confusion, fear, and despair than that he will become violent or dangerous! Yet another common myth about schizophrenia is that people with the illness cannot lead productive lives. This untruth was most effectively debunked by ten years of research from the New Hampshire dual diagnosis study. This research found that 62.7 percent of people with schizophrenia were managing to successfully control symptoms of the disease while 56.8-percent were thriving in independent living situations and 41.4 percent were gainfully employed! Despite this, another prevalent myth shrouding schizophrenia is that sufferers cannot get better and that they are doomed to lead lives of suffering and sickness. While it is true that schizophrenia is not curable, its symptoms can be very successfully treated with prescription medication and psychotherapy. Myths about schizophrenia abound, education and knowledge can help end the stigma against the condition. If you believe that you or a loved one suffers from schizophrenia, please make an appointment with a mental health professional.More »
Last Modified: 2013-06-13 | Tags »
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What is schizophreniform? While schizophrenia is a lifelong condition, schizophreniform is a shorter term version of it and can be just as disabling. Get to know more about it in this video.
Transcript: Most people realize that schizophrenia is a lifelong mental illness, but few are aware that the condition...
Most people realize that schizophrenia is a lifelong mental illness, but few are aware that the condition has a short-term counterpart! Schizophreniform disorder is a serious mental condition that affects the way a person thinks, behaves, and communicates. In the united states, about one in 1,000 individuals will be diagnosed with schizophreniform disorder in their lifetime. This mental illness is equally prevalent among men and women. The most common ages of onset are 18-24 for men and 18-35 for women. Schizophreniform Disorder is diagnosed when symptoms of schizophrenia are present for a significant portion of time within a one-month period, but are not present for the full six months required for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Impairment in social, occupational, or academic functioning is required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia, but with schizophreniform disorder, an individual's particular level of functioning may or may not be affected. While the onset of schizophrenia is often gradual over a number of months or years, for those with schizophreniform disorder, schizophrenia-like symptoms tend to show up rapidly and unexpectedly. Hallucinations, which involve seeing, hearing, and experiencing things that are not really there, as well as delusions, which are unwavering beliefs based in fantasy, are two of the most common symptoms of schizophreniform disorder. Disorganized speech patterns and the use of nonsense words often make it difficult for people with the condition to communicate, as well. Schizophreniform disorder patients may also display movement disorders, ranging from repetitive, agitated body movements, to an almost catatonic, unresponsive demeanor. Finally, people with schizophreniform disorder often display a lack of pleasure in previously enjoyable things, known as anhedonia. All these symptoms are generally compounded by a withdrawal from family and friends. Schizophreniform disorder symptoms read like a laundry list of the symptoms of schizophrenia. In fact, the only place where the two conditions differ significantly is in their duration. While people with schizophrenia have the condition for life those with schizophreniform disorder have symptoms for more than a month, but less than six months. For a doctor to diagnose schizophreniform disorder, schizophrenia-like symptoms must exist for this specific frame of time. All physical illnesses must also be ruled out before the condition is diagnosed. If schizophreniform disorder is confirmed, treatment consists of both medication and psychotherapy. Like schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder is often treated with antipsychotic medications, along with a variety of social supports, like individual psychotherapy, family therapy, and occupational therapy, all of which are designed to reduce the social and emotional impact of the illness. Antipsychotic medications, like risperdal, clorazil, and seroquel, are the medications usually prescribed for sufferers of schizophreniform disorder. The antipsychotics help treat the hallucinations, delusions, and other psychotic symptoms typical of schizophreniform disorder. By definition, people with schizophreniform disorder get better in six months or less. But about two-thirds of people who are diagnosed with schizophreniform disorder do go on to develop real schizophrenia at some point. If you or someone you love is experiencing symptoms like those typical of schizophreniform disorder and schizophrenia, make an appointment with a physician!More »
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What is schizotypal personality disorder? This condition is characterized by self-imposed isolation, odd behavior, and often unconventional beliefs. Learn more about it in this video.
Transcript: Schizotypal personality disorder, is characterized by self-imposed social isolation, odd behavior and...
Schizotypal personality disorder, is characterized by self-imposed social isolation, odd behavior and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs. People with this disorder tend to be loners because their behavior is seen as disconcerting, or even disturbing, by others. Schizotypal personality disorder is a mental disorder marked by pervasive isolation, which means people who have the condition engage in few to no intimate relationships. To some extent, this remoteness is due to the extreme social anxiety that most people with schizotypal personality disorder experience which is more linked to distrust and an inability to communicate with others, than with possessing negative self image. SPD sufferers tend to seem themselves as outcast, and this isolation causes pain as they increasingly disengage from the world around them. As part of this apprehension, sufferers may believe that they are the center and cause of all events. For example, if someone laughs, a person with schizotypal personality disorder will assume that the laughter is directed AT them. But individuals with schizotypal personality disorder ALSO become isolated due to the off-putting behaviors they tend to display. For example, people with this disorder tend to ramble endlessly and oddly about topics unrelated to a conversation. Meanwhile, their speech is often garbled and hard to understand. People with schizotypal personality disorder may also harbor and discuss unusual, magical ideas such as a belief in telepathy or paranoia and distrust around certain individuals or groups, like newscasters or police. They may dress in peculiar ways and have very strange ways of viewing the world around them. Often they harbor unusual ideas, such as believing in the powers of ESP or a "sixth sense." At times, they believe they can magically influence people's thoughts, actions and emotions. And often, SPD sufferers demonstrate flat, listless emotions and mannerisms. Symptoms of schizotypal disorder can be easily confused with those of schizophrenia, which is characterized by a severe loss of contact with reality or psychosis. People with schizotypal personalities, however, may experience brief psychotic episodes with delusions or hallucinations, which are not as pronounced, frequent or intense as in schizophrenia. Another key distinction between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia is that people with the personality disorder can usually distinguish between their distorted notions and reality. Those with schizophrenia typically cannot be swayed from their delusions. Like most mental illnesses, schizotypal personality disorder is believed to stem from a combination of genetics and environment. Rates of schizotypal disorder are much higher in relatives of individuals with schizophrenia than in the relatives of people with other mental illnesses or in people without mentally ill relatives. Individuals who come from a background of childhood abuse, neglect, or trauma are also more likely to suffer from schizotypal personality disorder. Schizotypal personality disorder typically begins in early adulthood and may endure throughout life. There's no cure for schizotypal personality disorder, but psychotherapy and some medications may help. Some research suggests that positive childhood experiences may help reduce symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder in affected young people. Psychotherapy for schizotypal disorder is oriented towards helping the patient develop more appropriate social skills, and changing the thought patterns that lead to their debilitating social impairment and distorted thinking. Because people who have schizotypal personality disorder often suffer from another disorder, like depression or anxiety, they may ALSO benefit from prescription medication that treats those symptoms. While these prescription drugs are not CURES for schizotypal personality disorder, they can still be very effective for managing symptoms. So if you believe someone in your life is affected by this condition, please make an appointment to speak with a medical professional!More »
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People who suffer from schizoid personality disorder have little desire for intimacy of any kind and prefer to live solitary lives, devoid of contact with anyone, including family members. Find out more about this disorder by watching this video.
Transcript: From working the midnight shift to living in a parent's basement, people with schizoid personality disorder...
From working the midnight shift to living in a parent's basement, people with schizoid personality disorder organize their entire lives around solitude. Schizoid personality disorder, or SPD, is a mental disorder observed in less than one-percent of the American population. People with SPD neither desire, nor enjoy, close relationships with others, including family members. Because of this, they almost always choose solitary occupations and activities. The desire for solitude is so strong in people with SPD, that even SEXUAL relationships with others are generally not attractive to them. In everyday life, people with schizoid personality disorder appear indifferent to BOTH praise and criticism. Similarly, they tend to be aloof and to show little emotion... Their flat facial expressions and emotionless patterns of speech often cause people with SPD to appear dull to others. The symptoms of SPD are so severe that people with the condition are often unable to experience ANY pleasure in life. This is known as anhedonia, and it may cause people with SPD to retreat into daydreams and fantasies. Despite their incredibly anti-social nature, people with schizoid personality disorder ARE generally able to function in everyday life. Schizoid personality disorder is a chronic illness with a poor outlook. The social isolation of the disorder often prevents the person from seeking the help or support that could potentially improve the outcome. People with schizoid personality disorder tend to shun interaction with medical professionals and are likely to seek help only at the urging of relatives or teachers or intervention by the legal system. Treatment MAY be helpful, though people with this disorder rarely seek it. Since personality tends to become entrenched with age, treatment for this personality disorder tends to be more effective if it begins as early as possible. Little is known about which treatments work. Talk therapy may not be effective, because people with schizoid personality disorder have difficulty relating well to others. If a person with schizoid personality disorder DOES undergo psychotherapy, the focus will be on teaching the person how to better interact socially and improve communication skills. A patient's past may also be examined and discussed as it is believed that a cold, unloving environment in childhood may contribute to the development of SPD in adulthood. Genetics seem to play a role in schizoid personality disorder's development as well, which means medication may ALSO help ease symptoms. For example, individuals who experience severe anhedonia may be treated with the anti-depressant bupropion, which is branded as Wellbutrin. Or, anti-psychotics like risperidone, which is branded as Risperdal and olanzapine, branded as Zyprexa, may be prescribed for patients with severe flattened emotions. Although treatment CAN help, most SPD sufferers are UNLIKELY to seek it, because their symptoms do not generally cause them distress. This makes it all the more important that family members stay alert to signs of schizoid personality disorder!More »
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Schizoaffective disorder is associated with a number of symptoms. Watch this video to learn about this pscychological disorder in more detail.
Transcript: For a person with schizoaffective disorder, a mental condition that causes both a loss of contact with...
For a person with schizoaffective disorder, a mental condition that causes both a loss of contact with reality and mood problems, life may be wracked with sorrow one day, and disturbed by hallucinations the next. Schizoaffective disorder can last for at least 2 weeks without major mood symptoms. The course of the disorder involves cycles of severe symptoms followed by improvement. People with schizoaffective disorder, which affects .5% of the American population, have symptoms of schizophrenia, a brain disorder that distorts the way an individual acts, thinks, relates to others, and perceives reality. But they ALSO have symptoms of a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. It's important to note, however that the signs and symptoms of schizoaffective disorder are different in each person. Depression is an illness characterized by feelings of sadness and hopelessness. Bipolar disorder, meanwhile, is characterized by cycling HIGH moods, called mania, and LOW moods, ALSO called depression. Common schizophrenic symptoms seen in this disorder include delusions, or unwavering beliefs based in fantasy and hallucinations, which involve seeing and hearing things that aren't really there. Disorganized thinking, lack of emotion, and very minimal movements are other schizophrenic symptoms of schizoaffective disorder. Meanwhile, depressive symptoms include feelings of worthlessness or hopelessness, lethargy, loss of interest in once pleasurable activities and thoughts of death or suicide. Remember, depressive symptoms may stand alone, or they may appear as half of the symptoms of bipolar disorder. The OTHER half of bipolar disorder, mania, may manifest in schizoaffective disorder as rapid or racing thoughts and speech patterns decreased need for sleep and increased social, work, and sexual activity. These schizoaffective symptoms usually appear from ages 16 to 30, and they occur slightly more often in women. No one knows for SURE what makes schizoaffective disorder develop.. However, a tendency to develop the illness DOES run in families. Additionally, schizoaffective disorder is believed to relate to an imbalance of brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters. There is also evidence to suggest that environmental factors ranging from a highly stressful life to contracting a viral infection may lead to schizoaffective disorder in people genetically or chemically PREDISPOSED to the illness. Often, people with the disease are misdiagnosed as being solely schizophrenic, solely depressive, or solely bipolar. Those with schizoaffective disorder tend to seek treatment for problems with mood, daily function, or abnormal thoughts. Psychosis and mood changes may occur at one time, or off and on by themselves. For this reason, the American Psychiatric Association outlines very specific guidelines for diagnosing the disorder. If schizoaffective disorder IS established, prescription medication is the cornerstone of treatment. Usually the combination of antipsychotic and mood-stabilizing medication controls both depressive and manic symptoms, but some people may also need antidepressants. Paxil or Lexapro are frequently used antidepressants for those with schizoaffective disorder... and lithium may also be prescribed if bipolar symptoms need stablilization. Antipsychotic medications, like Clozaril and Risperdal, may ALSO be prescribed to ease symptoms of schizophrenia. Generally, psychotherapy is used to supplement this medication regimen. But left UNTREATED, schizoaffective disorder may make it difficult to hold down a job... or attend school. It can also cause a sufferer to lead an isolated, lonely life. Because treatment really CAN ease symptoms of the disorder, please see a doctor if you think schizoaffective disorder is affecting YOUR life or the life of a loved one!More »
Last Modified: 2013-06-13 | Tags »
schizoaffective disorder, disorder schizoaffective, schizo mood disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, sadness, hopelessness, mania, psychosis mental, mental health, mental illness, mental condition, psychiatric disorder, personality disorder, psychotherapy, split personality Paxil, Lexapro, Clozaril, Risperdal
What is intermittent explosive disorder? Episodes of extreme aggression, such as road rage, are one example of how this disorder manifests itself. Watch this video for more information.
Transcript: Physical abuse. Road rage. Extreme aggression. Think temper tantrums that involve throwing or breaking...
Physical abuse. Road rage. Extreme aggression. Think temper tantrums that involve throwing or breaking objects. Sometimes such erratic eruptions can be caused by a condition known as intermittent explosive disorder or IED. You may be unfamiliar with the name, but chances are you've witnessed the angry outbursts that characterize intermittent explosive disorder. According to a national institute of mental health study, the disorder occurs most often in young men and may affect as many as one in 14 U.S. adults. People with this condition tend to repeatedly engage in uncontrollable explosions. During a flare-up, IED sufferers often attack others or their possessions, resulting in bodily injury or property damage. Later, people with intermittent explosive disorder may feel remorse, regret or embarrassment. But IED isn't limited to harming others! Fully 16-percent of people with the condition also engage in acts of self-aggression. No matter the target, attacks of intermittent explosive disorder tend to last about 10 to 20 minutes. And a study conducted in 2006 suggests that IED is considerably more prevalent than previously thought. In a study of almost 10,000 individuals 18 years or older, lifetime episodes were reported at 7.3%, while 12-month occurrences were reported at 3.9%. This suggests an average lifetime occurrence of 43 instances, with about $1,359 in property damage. They are often accompanied by physical symptoms, including heart palpitations, head pressure, chest tightness, and body tremors. After an explosive outburst is over, it's not uncommon for feelings of embarrassment and remorse to surface. So why do people with intermittent explosive disorder act the way they do? Children, exposed to violence and abuse, appear to have a greater chance of developing intermittent explosive disorder as teens and adults. The condition may also be genetic, meaning the disorder is passed from one generation to the next. People suffering from anxiety, depression, or substance abuse are also more likely to be diagnosed with IED. In fact, about 82-percent of people diagnosed with IED have one of these disorders! Additionally, people with intermittent explosive disorder may have an imbalance in certain brain chemicals, including serotonin and testosterone. IED can make it difficult to engage in meaningful relationships and even to hold down a job! For this reason, treatment is aggressive and often focused on prescription medication. Drugs used to treat IED include antidepressants, like Prozac and Paxil anti-anxiety medications, like Valium and Xanax, anticonvulsants, such as Lamictal and Dilantan, and mood regulators, like Lithium. People with intermittent explosive disorder may also find that anger management group meetings and talk therapy can help them control their symptoms. Knowing this, it makes sense to seek help from a mental health professional if you or someone you love is affected by this disorder!More »
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